Japones: versatile chiles with a medium heat level

Japones peppers are medium-heat chile peppers commonly used in Asian, American, and Caribbean cuisine. Dried japones peppers are often minced and added to breads and relishes. They have many health benefits and can be easily grown at home.

What are japones peppers?

Japones peppers, also known as Japanese peppers and santaka peppers, are moderately hot chili peppers that belong to the Capsicum annuum species. Japones peppers are common in stir-fries and sauces. Not only do they bring heat, but they also add a vibrant hue to any dish.

OriginNative to Mexico
AppearanceThin, 2-inch long chiles
Flavor profileMedium-heat peppers, dried japones have earthy and smoky flavors and are spicier than fresh


Even though the “japones” is Spanish for “japanese,” this chili is native to Mexico. Specifically, it is native to Jalisco and the Central Valley of Mexico. Despite originating in South America, they are a popular ingredient in Asian, Latin, and Caribbean cuisine. They are also commonly used in Schezuan and Hunan dishes.


Japones peppers are thin, long chiles. They usually grow about 2 inches long and half an inch wide. Japones peppers grow heat as they mature. They start as green but mature into red peppers. Dried japones have a burnt or rusted red color. Some types of japones peppers are yellow.

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Flavor profile

Japones peppers are medium-heat peppers, with a heat level ranging from 15,000 to 30,000 Scoville heat units (SHU). They are 2-12 times hotter than Jalapenos. Japones peppers share a similar heat profile to chile de arbol. Dried japones have earthy and smoky flavors and are spicier than fresh japones.

Nutritional Benefits of japones peppers

Japones peppers have many health benefits. Dried japones peppers are a source of vitamin A, which maintains healthy organ functioning. They also provide vitamin C that strengthens the immune system, and increases collagen production.

Japones peppers contain fiber that regulates the digestive tract. They contain many other nutrients, such as copper, calcium, iron, magnesium, and vitamin E. These peppers carry capsaicin, which has anti-inflammatory properties.

What is the difference between a japones pepper and an arbol pepper?

Japones pepperHas a fleshier texture, having thicker skin and a flatter body, has a more clean and more neutral flavor profile, popular in Japan and China
Arbol pepperThinner, pack a more intense punch, and are slightly spicier than japones, a Mexican spice cultivated in Mexico, Central and South America

The japones pepper has a similar flavor and appearance to the arbol pepper. Although you can use them interchangeably, the japones pepper has a fleshier texture, having thicker skin and a flatter body.

The heat profiles of both peppers are similar. They both rank 15,000 to 30,000 SHU on the Scoville Scale.

However, arbol peppers pack a more intense punch than japones peppers and are slightly spicier than japones.

Arbol chiles also have a slightly less complex flavor. They have fruity undertones, while japones chiles have a more clean and more neutral flavor profile.

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Arbol peppers are a Mexican spice cultivated in Mexico, Central and South America. The Japanese pepper is primarily popular in Japan and China.

What recipes call for japones peppers?

Japones are used in stir-fries
Japones are used in stir-fries

Japones peppers are a versatile ingredient. They make excellent infusion chiles, adding spice to oils, vodkas, and cocktails. They can also be crushed to be used as chili flakes or powder.

Japones peppers are present in Japanese, Indian, and Chinese cooking. Specifically, they are used in stir-fries, chutneys, and salsas.

They are often roasted in oils to give them a crispy texture before they are put into dishes. People use them fresh or dried, ground or whole, and chopped or pureed. You can ground dried peppers to create powder or flakes for seasonings or roasted dishes.

Dried japones peppers are often added to dishes and removed before serving (like bay leaves), but you can leave them in the dish for extra spiciness. Japones peppers substitute for regular red chili powder or red pepper flakes.

Can I grow japones at home?

You can grow japones peppers in your home garden. Japones can be grown from seeds in the ground outside, or they can be grown in pots indoors.

These peppers are easy to access and purchase. When growing them, use stakes to prevent the plants from toppling over. Harvest them when they are green and during the growing season.

These grow upright in clusters of 5 to 6 at the top of an 18-24 inches tall, bushy plant. They often take about 50-100 warm days to mature. The japones pepper plant is annual, but in the US, people grow it as perennial.

Whitney Faulconer

Whitney Faulconer lives in Kentucky and loves to write. She also enjoys cooking and trying new flavors and spices. She combines her passion of writing and food to create information to share with others.

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